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 My country - Ukraine

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СтворюватиТема: My country - Ukraine   My country - Ukraine EmptyСб Жовт 10, 2015 6:51 am

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СтворюватиТема: Re: My country - Ukraine   My country - Ukraine EmptyСб Жовт 10, 2015 6:51 am

I live in Ukraine that is one of the largest countries in Europe. It is a sovereign republic with its own territory, government, national emblems. Its territory is 603,700 sq km. Ukraine borders on Russia, Belarus, Poland, Hungary, Romania, Moldova and Slovakia. It is washed by the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. The main river of our country is the Dnipro, the others are the Dnister, the Bug, the Prut and so on. In the territory of Ukraine there are two mountainous areas: the Carpathian and the Crimean Mountains.

Our state has its administrative division. It is divided on 24 regions and the Crimea. The regions consist of districts.

The capital of Ukraine is Kyiv and the largest cities are Odesa, Lviv, Donetsk, Kharkiv etc. The population is over 46 mln inhabitants. Mostly they are Ukrainians, but there are many national groups and minorities, the largest one is Russian.

Ukraine has its own language (Ukrainian), currency (hryvnia), emblems (its flag, trident and anthem). The Constitution of the state, which was adopted in 1996, declares our rights and duties.

The country is rich in mineral resources, such as iron, coal, oil, gas. It has a developed industry, concentrated mostly in or around big cities like Zaporizhya, Dnipropetrovs’k, Mykolaiv, Lviv, Donetsk, Kharkiv. Ukraine produces planes and ships, lorries and buses, electronic equipment and other goods.

Ukraine has long history. Kyiv Rus’, Hetmanshchyna, Cossack Republic, and USSR – such states were on the territory of modern Ukraine. You can see the examples of that time in the whole territory of our country: castles and museums, monuments and even villages. Many tourists come to our country to visit not only the places of our history but modern natural or industrial sights. The most popular sights are Kyiv Sophia Cathedral, castles in Mukachevo and Kamianets-Podilskiy, lakes Svitias and Synevir, rocks in the mountains and so on.

Our country is really beautiful and rich in places and people.
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СтворюватиТема: Re: My country - Ukraine   My country - Ukraine EmptyНд Жовт 23, 2016 5:47 pm

Political life of Ukraine

I live in Ukraine that is one of the largest countries in Europe. It is a sovereign republic with its own territory, government, national emblems. The independence of Ukraine was proclaimed on the 24th of August, 1991. Its sovereignty is now recognized by all the countries of the world. The territory of my country is 603,700 sq km. Ukraine borders on Russia, Belarus, Poland, Hungary, Romania, Moldova and Slovakia. It is washed by the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov.
Ukraine has its own language (Ukrainian), currency (hryvnia), emblems (its flag, trident and anthem). The Constitution of the state, which was adopted in 1996, declares our rights and duties and it is the main law of the state.

The power in the country is divided into legislative, executive and judiciary. The main legislative body of Ukraine is the Verkhovna Rada, which consists of 450 deputies. The highest executive body is the president. The president is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces of Ukraine. He also represents the state in the international relations. Another part of the executive branch is the Cabinet of Ministers, which is headed by the Prime-Minister. The Cabinet of Ministers coordinates the administration of the government. The judiciary power belongs to the Constitutional Court and regional courts.

Our state has its administrative division. It is divided on 24 regions and Autonomy Republic of Crimea. The regions consist of districts.

The capital of Ukraine is Kyiv and the largest cities are Odesa, Lviv, Donetsk, Kharkiv etc. The population is over 46 mln inhabitants. Mostly they are Ukrainians, but there are many national groups and minorities, the largest one is Russian.

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СтворюватиТема: Re: My country - Ukraine   My country - Ukraine EmptyНд Жовт 23, 2016 5:47 pm

Outstanding Ukrainians

In the history of humanity there have always been people whose actions and ideas produced a great impact on the lives of other people. They have made a great contribution to the science, culture, social life of this country. That’s why they are called outstanding. Ukraine has given the world many brilliant names in literature, science, art. Ukrainian culture is famous for its rich and ancient traditions.

There are many famous people in Ukraine who have a large following, not only in their own country, but also in other parts of the world. Their achievements may encompass a variety of fields but they are loved and celebrated by their people and fans across educational and cultural divides. Many famous people from Ukraine have worked really hard to reach their various accomplishments and some may have even used their various talents to take them from poverty to wealth in a relatively short time.

Ukrainians are passionate, hard-working individuals and as such, have managed to reach the top in many different fields. These may include athletics, art, theatre, literature, business, aeronautics, academics, politics, religion and war.

The names of Taras Shevchenko, Lessya Ukrainka, Ivan Franko, Marko Vovchok and Hrygoriy Skovoroda won universal recognition. By UNO decisions the anniversaries of their births are celebrated worldwide. There’s hardly a country in the world which doesn’t have Taras Shevchenko’s poems translated into its language. Gentle melodies and deep emotions of Lessya Ukrainka’s verses are dear to poetry-lovers throughout the world.

Ukraine has also given the world many outstanding scientists. Such names as Vernandskyi, Zabolotnyi, Bogomolets, Sklifosovskyi, Paton, Filatov are well-known all over the world. Nowadays modern Ukrainian scientists achieved great successes in the field of mathematics, physics, biology and medicine. Great contribution to the world’s historical science was made by such prominent Ukrainian historians as Mykhailo Hrushevskyi, Mykhailo Dragomanov, Dmytro Yavornitskyi, Mykola Kostomarov. By the way, Mikhailo Grushevsky was the first President of Ukrainian People’s Republic.
The Ukrainian national composer school is connected with the name of Mykola Lysenko. M. Lysenko’s operas “Taras Bulba”, “Natalka Poltavka”, “Eneida” are still staged at the world’s opera-houses.

Ukrainian fine art is represented by the names of Kostandi, Murashko, Borovikovskyi, Pymonenko. Ukrainian culture always developed human traditions of the mankind. Our orchestras, singers, ballet-masters visit different countries every year.

The Ukrainian culture always developed human traditions of the mankind.

There are also those whose claim to fame may have nothing to do with hard work and determination and more to do with natural abilities. Such is the case with Leonid Stadnik, the world’s tallest man. Leonid, a veterinarian, claims to measure in at 2.54 meters high – some 18 cm more than the current Guinness World Record holder – and some say he is still growing. Unfortunately, Leonid refuses to be measured, claiming that he does not want any publicity. The 200 kg man’s unusual growth is the result of a post-operative tumor on his pituitary gland which has resulted in large amounts of growth hormone being excreted.

Another famous Ukrainian is Milica Natasha Jovovic, better known as Milla Jovovich. Milla, who was born in Ukraine, has risen to fame as an American supermodel, actress, musician, singer and fashion designer. Most will recognize her from her movies which include ‘The Fifth Element’, ‘Joan of Arc’ and ‘Resident Evil’. There are many other famous people from Ukraine, but there are simply too many to mention here. We hope that you have enjoyed hearing about just two of Ukraine’s talented people.
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СтворюватиТема: Re: My country - Ukraine   My country - Ukraine EmptyНд Жовт 23, 2016 5:48 pm

The political system of Ukraine

I’d tell you about the political system of Ukraine and the changes which should be made to make our life better, from my point of view.

Ukraine is a sovereign state, on the 24th of August, 1991 it became independent. Today in our Constitutions it is written that Ukraine is a sovereign, independent, democratic, social, legal state. The country has three branches of power — the legislative, which is represented by the Verkhovna Rada, the executive, headed by the President, and the juducial, which is led by the Supreme Court.
The President is elected to a five-year term. The first president of Ukraine was Leonid Kravchuk. In 2014 Ukrainian people elected Petro Poroshenko as a new President, and I hope Ukraine entered a new phase of development. It will be very good when our new president fulfils his words about the future of our country. But for now he doesn’t do it with all his strength and power. I want Mr. President to think more about the people of the state than the people of his team.
Ukraine's parliament is called Verkhovna Rada. Its main function is making laws. It has one chamber, which consists of 450 members. They are elected at a general, equal and direct election. Parliamentary elections take place every five years in the last week of March. The latest elections were held this October. I know that there are a lot of deputies came back to the parliament. I wish them to work really hard to make good laws for the country and people. It would be great when all of the came to their work and showed the whole world their honesty, responsibility and competence.

The Verkhovna Rada elects the Chairman from its membership. The Chairman conducts meetings of the Verkhovna Rada and organises its work. It can declare war and conclude peace upon the President's proposal, adopt the state budget and control the execution of it.

Judicial power in Ukraine is represented by the Supreme Court and the Constitutional Court. The Consitutional Court consists of 18 judges, which are appointed for 9 years. The Supreme Court, in its turn, is the highest juridical body of general jurisdiction. Some words about this power. The judges of all levels must know the laws of Ukraine and always follow them, not looking what the people are in front of them.

It should be mentioned that the President of Ukraine appoints the Prime Minister with the consent of the Verkhovna Rada. He also appoints members of the Cabinet of Ministers, and heads of local state administration. The President is the commander-in-chief of the military forces of Ukraine. The Cabinet of Ministers is the highest body of the executive power. It is responsible for foreign affairs, home policy, economy, science and technology, industry, law. But it is not fair when our ministers not always have appropriate knowledge and experience for their position.

The representatives of our power are the people of Ukraine. So, I think that all of us must be equal in our rights and duties, salaries and benefits, opportunities and responsibility.

When a country leads a hard life and this cannot last long, it begins to change something – this is what we call reforms. Written laws, chats, or opinions alone cannot bring about changes. This can only be done by a team or a political force that takes on responsibility and works. A system cannot change itself. Some ‘madmen’ are needed.
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СтворюватиТема: Re: My country - Ukraine   My country - Ukraine EmptyНд Жовт 23, 2016 5:48 pm

Climate of Ukraine

I live in Ukraine that is one of the largest countries in Europe. Ukraine lies in the eastern part of Europe. The territory of my country is generally flat. But there are the Carpathian Mountains in the west and the Crimean Mountains in the south. Ukrainian territory is washed by the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. The main river of our country is the Dnipro, the others are the Dnister, the Bug, the Prut and so on. These factors influence the climate of Ukraine. It is mostly moderately continental. But the Crimea differs from the other parts of the territory. The climate there is subtropical.

The Crimean Mountains stop cold winds from the north. The Carpathian Mountains differ from the rest of the Ukrainian territory in the amount of rains. The highest rainfall is noticed in this part. There are four seasons in Ukraine: winter, spring, summer and autumn. Each of them has its weather. Summer is usually dry and hot in Ukraine, but in the Carpathians showers and thunderstorms often happen. The average summer temperature in Ukraine is 21—22 degrees above zero. The hottest month is July.

Winter is usually mild, without strong frosts. Sleet is quite usual for Ukrainian cities and towns in winter. It usually snows in winter. Fogs are not frequent in the country, but they may happen in autumn or spring. The winter temperature is 10-20 degrees below zero. The coldest month is January.

Due to its good climatic conditions, Ukraine is traditionally an agricultural country. It grows wheat, maize and other corns, vegetables and nearly all kinds of fruit.
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СтворюватиТема: Re: My country - Ukraine   My country - Ukraine EmptyНд Жовт 23, 2016 5:49 pm

The Climate of Ukraine

The climate of Ukraine is determined by its geographical location. Ukraine’s territory lies in the temperate belt and its climate is temperately continental, only the southern coast of the Crimea is subtropical. The climate of Ukraine is characterized by considerable variations due to the great range from north to south and from west to east, stretching from the areas under the influence of the north-western Atlantic to the interior of the continent. This means that the air temperature decreases not only from north to south but also from west to east. The characteristic features of the climate are higher summer temperatures, lower winter temperatures, and rare rainfalls.

The Ukrainian climate has considerable fluctuation in weather conditions from year to year.

Alongside very wet years there can be droughts, and alongside cold years there are warm years.
The Black and the Azov seas have small influence on the climate and it’s felt only in coastal areas. The warmest region is nearby the Black Sea, the coldest — in the north-east and in the mountains. The southern coast of Crimea is subtropical. Crimean mountains obstruct the movement of cold Arctic air to the coast and create conditions for one of the best resort areas in Ukraine.

The average yearly temperature in Ukraine varies between +5..+7 C in the north and +11..+13 C in the south. January is the coldest month and July is the hottest one.

In general Ukraine can be divided into four different climatic regions: cool snow forest climate, steppe climate, Mediterranean climate and mountain tundra climate.
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СтворюватиТема: Re: My country - Ukraine   My country - Ukraine EmptyНд Жовт 23, 2016 5:49 pm

Ukrainian etiquette

There are a few simple rules of etiquette that should be followed when visiting Ukraine.
• If invited to a family home, it is traditional to bring a gift. A bottle of wine, a cake, or a bouquet of flowers are customary. If there is a child in the house, it is appropriate to bring a gift forhim/her as well.
• If planning on giving flowers as a gift, make sure that the number of flowers in a bouquet is uneven (an even number of flowers is considered bad luck).
• Do not shake hands across the threshold of a door. It is considered bad luck to do so.
• When eating dinner at someone's home, casual dress is accepted. Also, be prepared to give a toast at dinner, as guests are often asked to do so.
• Be prepared to accept all food and drink offered to you when visiting friends. Ukrainians are known for their generosity when it comes to feeding others. Refusing food may be considered rude.
• Be prepared to take off your shoes upon entering a home. To keep apartments clean, most hosts will provide their guests a pair of slippers.
• Be careful when complimenting a host's belongings because they may offer it to you.
• If wearing gloves, take them off before shaking hands with someone.
• When using public transportation, seats should be given up to accommodate the elderly, mothers with children, and the handicapped.
• Offer to share snacks and cigarettes with those people around you.
• At the entrance of an upscale restaurant, expect that your coat, briefcase, or baggage will be checked.
• Be sure to have business cards printed in Ukrainian on one side, and in English on the other.
• For business, dress should be conservative. Men should not take off their jackets unless asked to do so.
• In Orthodox and Greek-Catholic churches, women wear scarves or hats, and men take off their hats.

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СтворюватиТема: Re: My country - Ukraine   My country - Ukraine EmptyНд Жовт 23, 2016 5:50 pm

Ukraine (traditions, customs, people)

My name is Yulia, and I was born in Ukraine. Ukraine is my Motherland and I`m very proud to live here. So I`d like to tell you about my country

Ukraine is one of the largest countries of Eastern Europe. The capital of Ukraine is Kyiv. People who live in Ukraine are Ukrainians. They all speak Ukrainian, the official language of the country. The national currency in Ukraine is hryvnia.

There are a lot of places to see in Ukraine and to be proud of. There the Carpathians with their legends, castles, cathedrals and unique traditions. There`s Kyiv-one of the oldest cities in Europe, with it`s historical monuments, museums, theatres, exhibitions halls, art galleries and it`s rich cultural life.

Ukrainians as a nation formed back in ancient times. And our ancestors began to create their culture far long before Christianity came to the land. Up till now our traditions feature elements of old Ukrainian, pre-Christian and Christian cultures. They got so merged with each other that sometimes we can't draw a demarcation line between the pagan and Christian rituals.

Traditions are like the heart of a nation's culture. They determine the way people live; the languages they speak, the religions they follow, the values they hold, the relationships they keep, the foods they eat, the clothes they wear, the building they have made and much more. Ukrainian traditions embody the genuine qualities of the people and reflect them in their lifestyle, everyday life, their customs and accompany a man from the moment of birth up to the last day, being passed over from generation to generation.

If traditions are a heart of the national culture, the life values are its foundation. What are the ideas, beliefs and aspirations which have formed the foundation of Ukraine customs and traditions?
Ukrainians are traditionally family oriented people. It is common for parents (or grandparents) to live together with their children and help them to raise their kids.

Ukrainians are well known for their hospitality. They love to invite people to their homes or to visit at the homes of their friends and relatives. Traditional Ukraine customs are to put the best food on the table and to feed the guest once he has entered their home. But Ukrainian parties are not just about food, it is a long process with plenty of eating, drinking and conversation. Numerous folk songs (schedrivky, kolyadky, vesnyanky) accompanied by the charming music of national instruments (bandura, sopilka, tsymbala, buben) and a whirlpool of folk dances (hopak, kozachok) are an integral part of family and folk holidays.

You can’t imagine a Ukrainian holiday without national cuisine which is well known abroad for its traditions connected with customs, daily and spiritual life of people. It is also famous for its diversity and deliciousness. Most dishes are cooked to complicated recipes, stuffed and stewed dishes are widely spread (holubtsi, stuffed cabbage; kruchenyky, twisted dough with different filling; stuffed meat, etc). Varenyky, halushky, pan-cakes, pampushky are of great popularity among Ukrainians. Varenyky are made with curd, cabbage, potatoes, meat, berries and other fillings. Borsch (red-beat soup) is a most famous and widely spread kind of first courses. It may account more than 20 ingredients which impart a specific taste to the dish. And there are more than fifty recipes of its cooking.

If you are invited to a Ukrainian family you can be sure that hospitable hosts will prepare for you most delicious dishes of the national cuisine accompanied with plenty of tasteful drinks.

Ukraine customs and traditions have also determined the style of public behaviour. Ukrainians are brought up to avoid attracting attention to themselves. They usually speak quietly in public and to sit or lay on the floor is considered inappropriate in public places.

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